Cell culture is the complex process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions. In practice, the term "cell culture" has come to refer to the culturing of cells derived from multicellular Wikipedia:eukaryotes, especially Wikipedia:animal cells. The historical development and methods of cell culture are closely interrelated to those of Wikipedia:tissue culture and Wikipedia:organ culture.
Animal cell culture became a common Wikipedia:laboratory technique in the mid-1900s, but the concept of maintaining live cell lines separated from their original tissue source was discovered in the 19th century.
- 1 History
- 2 Concepts in mammalian cell culture
- 3 Applications of cell culture
- 4 Culture of non-mammalian cells
- 5 Common cell lines
- 6 List of cell lines
- 7 See also
- 8 References and notes
- 9 External links
The 19th-century English physiologist Wikipedia:Sydney Ringer developed salt solutions containing the chlorides of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium suitable for maintaining the beating of an isolated animal heart outside of the body. In 1885 Wikipedia:Wilhelm Roux removed a portion of the Wikipedia:medullary plate of an Wikipedia:embryonic Wikipedia:chicken and maintained it in a warm Wikipedia:saline solution for several days, establishing the principle of tissue culture. Wikipedia:Ross Granville Harrison, working at Wikipedia:Johns Hopkins Medical School and then at Wikipedia:Yale University, published results of his experiments from 1907–1910, establishing the methodology of Wikipedia:tissue culture.
Cell culture techniques were advanced significantly in the 1940s and 1950s to support research in Wikipedia:virology. Growing viruses in cell cultures allowed preparation of purified viruses for the manufacture of Wikipedia:vaccines. The injectable polio vaccine developed by Wikipedia:Jonas Salk was one of the first products mass-produced using cell culture techniques. This vaccine was made possible by the cell culture research of Wikipedia:John Franklin Enders, Wikipedia:Thomas Huckle Weller, and Wikipedia:Frederick Chapman Robbins, who were awarded a Wikipedia:Nobel Prize for their discovery of a method of growing the virus in monkey Wikipedia:kidney cell cultures.
Concepts in mammalian cell culture
Isolation of cells
Cells can be isolated from tissues for Wikipedia:ex vivo culture in several ways. Cells can be easily purified from blood, however only the white cells are capable of growth in culture. Mononuclear cells can be released from soft tissues by enzymatic digestion with Wikipedia:enzymes such as collagenase, Wikipedia:trypsin, or Wikipedia:pronase, which break down the Wikipedia:extracellular matrix. Alternatively, pieces of tissue can be placed in growth media, and the cells that grow out are available for culture. This method is known as Wikipedia:explant culture.
Cells that are cultured directly from a subject are known as primary cells. With the exception of some derived from tumors, most primary cell cultures have limited lifespan. After a certain number of population doublings (called the Hayflick limit) cells undergo the process of Wikipedia:senescence and stop dividing, while generally retaining viability.
An established or immortalised cell line has acquired the ability to proliferate indefinitely either through random mutation or deliberate modification, such as artificial expression of the Wikipedia:telomerase Wikipedia:gene. There are numerous well established cell lines representative of particular cell types.
Maintaining cells in culture
Cells are grown and maintained at an appropriate Wikipedia:temperature and gas mixture (typically, 37Wikipedia:°C, 5% CO2 for mammalian cells) in a Wikipedia:cell incubator. Culture conditions vary widely for each cell type, and variation of conditions for a particular cell type can result in different Wikipedia:phenotypes being expressed.
Aside from temperature and gas mixture, the most commonly varied factor in culture systems is the growth medium. Recipes for growth media can vary in Wikipedia:pH, glucose concentration, Wikipedia:growth factors, and the presence of other nutrients. The growth factors used to supplement media are often derived from animal Wikipedia:blood, such as calf serum. One complication of these blood-derived ingredients is the potential for contamination of the culture with Wikipedia:viruses or Wikipedia:prions, particularly in Wikipedia:biotechnology medical applications. Current practice is to minimize or eliminate the use of these ingredients wherever possible, but this cannot always be accomplished. Alternative strategies involve sourcing the animal blood from countries with minimum BSE/TSE risk such as Australia and New Zealand, and using purified nutrient concentrates derived from serum in place of whole animal serum for cell culture.
Plating density (number of cells per volume of culture medium) plays a critical role for some cell types. For example, a lower plating density makes Wikipedia:granulosa cells exhibit estrogen production, while a higher plating density makes them appear as Wikipedia:progesterone producing Wikipedia:theca lutein cells.
Cells can be grown in suspension or adherent cultures. Some cells naturally live in suspension, without being attached to a surface, such as cells that exist in the bloodstream. There are also cell lines that have been modified to be able to survive in suspension cultures so that they can be grown to a higher density than adherent conditions would allow. Adherent cells require a surface, such as tissue culture plastic or Wikipedia:microcarrier, which may be coated with extracellular matrix components to increase adhesion properties and provide other signals needed for growth and differentiation. Most cells derived from solid tissues are adherent. Another type of adherent culture is organotypic culture which involves growing cells in a three-dimensional environment as opposed to two-dimensional culture dishes. This 3D culture system is biochemically and physiologically more similar to in vivo tissue, but is technically challenging to maintain because of many factors (e.g. diffusion).
Cell line cross-contamination
Cell line cross-contamination can be a problem for scientists working with cultured cells. Studies suggest that anywhere from 15–20% of the time, cells used in experiments have been misidentified or contaminated with another cell line. Problems with cell line cross contamination have even been detected in lines from the NCI-60 panel, which are used routinely for drug-screening studies. Major cell line repositories including the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and the German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (DSMZ) have received cell line submissions from researchers that were misidentified by the researcher. Such contamination poses a problem for the quality of research produced using cell culture lines, and the major repositories are now authenticating all cell line submissions. ATCC uses Wikipedia:short tandem repeat (STR) DNA fingerprinting to authenticate its cell lines.
To address this problem of cell line cross-contamination, researchers are encouraged to authenticate their cell lines at an early passage to establish the identity of the cell line. Authentication should be repeated before freezing cell line stocks, every two months during active culturing and before any publication of research data generated using the cell lines. There are many methods for identifying cell lines including Wikipedia:isoenzyme analysis, Wikipedia:human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) typing and Wikipedia:STR analysis.
One significant cell-line cross contaminant is the immortal Wikipedia:HeLa cell line.
Manipulation of cultured cells
As cells generally continue to divide in culture, they generally grow to fill the available area or volume. This can generate several issues:
- Nutrient depletion in the growth media
- Accumulation of apoptotic/necrotic (dead) cells.
- Cell-to-cell contact can stimulate cell cycle arrest, causing cells to stop dividing known as Wikipedia:contact inhibition or Wikipedia:senescence.
- Cell-to-cell contact can stimulate Wikipedia:cellular differentiation.
Among the common manipulations carried out on culture cells are media changes, passaging cells, and transfecting cells. These are generally performed using tissue culture methods that rely on Wikipedia:sterile technique. Sterile technique aims to avoid contamination with bacteria, yeast, or other cell lines. Manipulations are typically carried out in a Wikipedia:biosafety hood or Wikipedia:laminar flow cabinet to exclude contaminating micro-organisms. Wikipedia:Antibiotics (e.g. Wikipedia:penicillin and Wikipedia:streptomycin) and antifungals (e.g. Wikipedia:Amphotericin B) can also be added to the growth media.
As cells undergo metabolic processes, acid is produced and the pH decreases. Often, a Wikipedia:pH indicator is added to the medium in order to measure nutrient depletion.
In the case of adherent cultures, the media can be removed directly by aspiration and replaced.
Template:Main Passaging (also known as subculture or splitting cells) involves transferring a small number of cells into a new vessel. Cells can be cultured for a longer time if they are split regularly, as it avoids the senescence associated with prolonged high cell density. Suspension cultures are easily passaged with a small amount of culture containing a few cells diluted in a larger volume of fresh media. For adherent cultures, cells first need to be detached; this is commonly done with a mixture of Wikipedia:trypsin-Wikipedia:EDTA, however other enzyme mixes are now available for this purpose. A small number of detached cells can then be used to seed a new culture.
Transfection and transduction
Template:Main Template:Main Another common method for manipulating cells involves the introduction of foreign DNA by Wikipedia:transfection. This is often performed to cause cells to express a protein of interest. More recently, the transfection of Wikipedia:RNAi constructs have been realized as a convenient mechanism for suppressing the expression of a particular gene/protein.
DNA can also be inserted into cells using Wikipedia:viruses, in methods referred to as transduction, Wikipedia:infection or transformation. Viruses, as parasitic agents, are well suited to introducing DNA into cells, as this is a part of their normal course of reproduction.
Established human cell lines
Cell lines that originate with Wikipedia:humans have been somewhat controversial in Wikipedia:bioethics, as they may outlive their parent organism and later be used in the discovery of lucrative medical treatments. In the pioneering decision in this area, the Wikipedia:Supreme Court of California held in Wikipedia:Moore v. Regents of the University of California that human patients have no property rights in cell lines derived from organs removed with their consent.
Generation of hybridomas
It is possible to fuse normal cells with an immortalised cell line. This method is used to produce monoclonal antibodies. In brief, lymphocytes isolated from the Wikipedia:spleen (or possibly blood) of an immunised animal are combined with an immortal myeloma cell line (B cell lineage) to produce a Wikipedia:hybridoma which has the antibody specificity of the primary lymphoctye and the immortality of the myeloma. Wikipedia:Selective growth medium (HA or HAT) is used to select against unfused myeloma cells; primary lymphoctyes die quickly in culture and only the fused cells survive. These are screened for production of the required antibody, generally in pools to start with and then after single cloning.
Applications of cell culture
Culture of non-mammalian cells
Plant cell culture methods
Template:Main Template:See also Plant cell cultures are typically grown as Wikipedia:cell suspension cultures in liquid medium or as callus cultures on solid medium. The culturing of undifferentiated plant cells and calli requires the proper balance of the plant growth hormones Wikipedia:auxin and Wikipedia:cytokinin.
Bacterial/Yeast culture methods
For bacteria and yeast, small quantities of cells are usually grown on a solid support that contains nutrients embedded in it, usually a gel such as agar, while large-scale cultures are grown with the cells suspended in a nutrient broth.
Viral culture methods
Template:Main The culture of Wikipedia:viruses requires the culture of cells of mammalian, plant, fungal or bacterial origin as hosts for the growth and replication of the virus. Whole Wikipedia:wild type viruses, recombinant viruses or viral products may be generated in cell types other than their natural hosts under the right conditions. Depending on the species of the virus, infection and Wikipedia:viral replication may result in host cell lysis and formation of a Wikipedia:viral plaque.
Common cell lines
- Wikipedia:Human cell lines
- Wikipedia:National Cancer Institute's 60 Wikipedia:cancer cell lines
- ESTDAB database http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/estdab/directory.html
- Wikipedia:DU145 (Wikipedia:Prostate cancer)
- Lncap (Wikipedia:Prostate cancer)
- MCF-7 (Wikipedia:breast cancer)
- Wikipedia:MDA-MB-438 (Wikipedia:breast cancer)
- Wikipedia:PC3 (Wikipedia:Prostate cancer)
- Wikipedia:T47D (Wikipedia:breast cancer)
- THP-1 (acute Wikipedia:myeloid Wikipedia:leukemia)
- Wikipedia:U87 (Wikipedia:glioblastoma)
- Wikipedia:SHSY5Y Human neuroblastoma cells, cloned from a Wikipedia:myeloma
- Wikipedia:Saos-2 cells (Wikipedia:bone cancer)
- Wikipedia:Primate cell lines
- Vero (African green monkey Wikipedia:Chlorocebus kidney Wikipedia:epithelial cell line initiated 1962)
- Wikipedia:Rat tumor cell lines
- Wikipedia:Mouse cell lines
- Plant cell lines
- Other species cell lines
- Wikipedia:zebrafish Wikipedia:ZF4 and Wikipedia:AB9 cells.
- Madin-Darby Canine Wikipedia:Kidney (MDCK) Wikipedia:epithelial cell line
- Wikipedia:Xenopus Wikipedia:A6 kidney Wikipedia:epithelial cells.
List of cell lines
|Cell line||Meaning||Organism||Origin tissue||Morphology||Link|
|293-T||Human||Kidney (embryonic)||Derivative of Wikipedia:HEK 293ECACC|
|Wikipedia:3T3 cells||"3-day transfer, inoculum 3 x 105 cells"||Mouse||Embryonic fibroblast||Also known as NIH 3T3 ECACC|
|A20||Murine||B Wikipedia:lymphoma||B Wikipedia:lymphocyte|
|A253||Human||Head and neck Wikipedia:carcinoma||Wikipedia:submandibular duct|
|A431||Human||Skin epithelium||squamous carcinoma||ECACCCell Line Data Base|
|Wikipedia:BCP-1 cells||Human||Wikipedia:PBMC||HIV+ Lymphoma||ATCC|
|BEAS-2B||Bronchial epithelium + Adenovirus 12-SV40 virus hybrid (Ad12SV40)||Human||Lung||Epithelial||ATCC|
|bEnd.3||Brain endothelial||Mouse||Brain / Wikipedia:Cerebral cortex||Endothelium||ATCC|
|BHK-21||"Baby Wikipedia:Hamster Wikipedia:Kidney Wikipedia:Fibroblast cells"||Wikipedia:Hamster||Wikipedia:Kidney||Wikipedia:fibroblast||ECACCOlympus|
|BR 293||Human||Breast||Breast cancer|
|BxPC3||Biopsy xenograph of pancreatic carcinoma line 3||Human||pancreatic adenocarcinoma||Epithelial||ATCC|
|C3H-10T1/2||Mouse||Embryonic mesenchymal cell line||ECACC|
|C6/36||Wikipedia:Asian tiger mosquito||larval tissue||ECACC|
|Cal-27||Human||Tongue||squamous cell carcinoma|
|CHO||Chinese hamster ovary||hamster||Ovary||Epithelium||ECACCICLC|
|COS-7||Cercopithecus aethiops, origin-defective SV-40||Ape - Cercopithecus aethiops (Wikipedia:Chlorocebus)||Kidney||fibroblast||ECACCATCC|
|COV-434||Human||Ovary||Metastatic granulosa cell carcinoma||ECACC|
|CML T1||Chronic Myelod Leukaemia T-lymphocyte 1||Human||CML acute phase||T cell leukaemia||Blood|
|CMT||canine mammary tumor||Dog||Mammary gland||Epithelium|
|DU145||Human||Wikipedia:Androgen insensitive Wikipedia:carcinoma||Prostate|
|DuCaP||Wikipedia:Dura mater Cancer of the Prostate||Human||Metastatic Prostate Cancer||Epithelial||Template:PMID|
|EL4||Mouse||T cell leukaemia||ECACC|
|EM2||Human||CML blast crisis||Ph+ CML line||Cell Line Data Base|
|EM3||Human||CML blast crisis||Ph+ CML line||Cell Line Data Base|
|FM3||Human||Metastatic lymph node||melanoma|
|HB54||Wikipedia:hybridoma||Wikipedia:hybridoma||secretes L243 mAb (against HLA-DR)||Human Immunology|
|HB55||Wikipedia:hybridoma||Wikipedia:hybridoma||secretes MA2.1 mAb (against HLA-A2 and HLA-B17)||Journal of Immunology|
|HCA2||Human||fibroblast||Journal of General Virology|
|HEK-293||Human embryonic kidney||Human||Kidney (embryonic)||Epithelium||ATCC|
|Wikipedia:HeLa||Henrietta Lacks||Human||Wikipedia:Cervical cancer||Epithelium||DSMZECACC|
|Hepa1c1c7||clone 7 of clone 1 hepatoma line 1||Mouse||Hepatoma||Epithelial||ECACC|
|HMEC||Human mammary epithelial cell||Human||Epithelium||ECACC|
|Jurkat||Human||T-Cell-Wikipedia:Leukemia||white blood cells||ECACC|
|Wikipedia:JY cells||Human||Lymphoblastoid||EBV immortalised B cell|
|Wikipedia:K562 cells||Human||Lymphoblastoid||CML blast crisis||ECACC|
|LNCap||Lymph node Cancer of the Prostate||Human||prostatic adenocarcinoma||Epithelial||ECACCATCC|
|Ma-Mel 1, 2, 3....48||Human||a range of melanoma cell lines|
|MCF-7||Michigan Cancer Foundation-7||Human||Mammary gland||Invasive breast ductal carcinoma||ER+, PR+|
|MCF-10A||Michigan Cancer Foundation||Human||mammary gland||Epithelium||ATCC|
|MDA-MB-231||M.D. Anderson - Metastatic Breast||Human||Breast||Cancer||ECACC|
|MDA-MB-468||M.D. Anderson - Metastatic Breast||Human||Breast||Cancer||ECACC|
|MDA-MB-435||M.D. Anderson - Metastatic Breast||Human||Breast||melanoma or carcinoma (disputed)||Cambridge Pathology ECACC|
|MDCK II||Madin Darby canine kidney||Dog||Kidney||Epithelium||ECACC ATCC|
|MDCK II||Madin Darby canine kidney||Dog||Kidney||Epithelium|| ATCC|
|MONO-MAC 6||Human||WBC||myeloid metaplasic Wikipedia:AML||Cell Line Data Base|
|Wikipedia:NIH-3T3||NIH, 3-day transfer, inoculum 3 x 105 cells||Mouse||embryo||fibroblast||ECACCATCC|
|NALM-1||peripheral blood||blast-crisis CML||Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics|
|OPCN / OPCT cell lines||Onyvax  Prostate Cancer....||Range of prostate tumour lines||Asterand|
|Peer||Human||T cell leukemia||DSMZ|
|PNT-1A / PNT 2||Prostate tumour lines||ECACC|
|RenCa||Renal Carcinoma||Mouse||renal carcinoma|
|RMA/RMAS||Mouse||T cell tumour|
|Sf-9||Spodoptera frugiperda||insect - Spodoptera frugiperda (moth)||Ovary||DSMZECACC|
|T2||Human||T cell leukemia/B cell line hybridoma||DSMZ|
|T-47D||Human||Mammary gland||ductal carcinoma|
|T84||Human||colorectal Carcinoma / Lungmetastasis||Epithelium||ECACCATCC|
|Wikipedia:THP1 cell line||Human||Monocyte||AML||ECACC|
|U937||Human||Leukaemic monocytic lymphoma||ECACC|
|VCaP||Vertebra Prostate Cancer||Human||Metastatic prostate cancer||Epithelial||ECACC ATCC|
|Wikipedia:Vero cells||'Vera Reno' ('Green kidney') / 'Vero' ('truth')||African Green Monkey||Kidney epithelium||ECACC|
|YAC-1||Mouse||Lymphoma||Cell Line Data Base ECACC|
|YAR||Human||B-cell||EBV transofrmed|| Human Immunology|
Note: this list is a sample of available cell lines, and is not comprehensive
- Wikipedia:Biological immortality
- Wikipedia:Cell culture assays
- Wikipedia:Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing
- Wikipedia:List of contaminated cell lines
- Wikipedia:Organ culture
- Wikipedia:Plant tissue culture
- Wikipedia:Tissue culture
References and notes
- ""Cell Culture"". http://www.bioteach.ubc.ca/Bioengineering/CellCulture/index.htm. Retrieved on 2006-04-19.
- ""Some landmarks in the development of tissue and cell culture."". http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?db=Books&rid=mboc4.table.1516. Retrieved on 2006-04-19.
- ""Animals and alternatives in testing."". http://caat.jhsph.edu/pubs/animal_alts/appendix_c.htm. Retrieved on 2006-04-19.
- Schiff, Judith Ann. ""An unsung hero of medical research."". http://www.yalealumnimagazine.com/issues/02_02/old_yale.html. Retrieved on 2006-04-19. Wikipedia:Yale Alumni Magazine, February 2002.
- "LipiMAX purified lipoprotein solution from bovine serum". Selborne Biological Services. 2006. http://www.selbornebiological.com/products/lipimax.htm. Retrieved on 2010-02-02.
- Portela VM, Zamberlam G, Price CA (April 2010). "Cell plating density alters the ratio of estrogenic to progestagenic enzyme gene expression in cultured granulosa cells". Fertil. Steril. 93 (6): 2050–5. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.01.151. PMID 19324349.
- Drexler, HG; Dirks, WG; Macleod, RA (Oct 1999). "False human hematopoietic cell lines: cross-contaminations and misinterpretations". Leukemia 13 (10): 1601–7. doi:10.1038/sj/leu/2401510. ISSN 0887-6924. PMID 10516762.
- Drexler, HG; Macleod, RA; Dirks, WG (Dec 2001). "Cross-contamination: HS-Sultan is not a myeloma but a Burkitt lymphoma cell line" (Free full text). Blood 98 (12): 3495–6. doi:10.1182/blood.V98.12.3495. ISSN 0006-4971. PMID 11732505. http://www.bloodjournal.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11732505.
- Cabrera, CM; Cobo, F; Nieto, A; Cortés, JL; Montes, RM; Catalina, P; Concha, A (Jun 2006). "Identity tests: determination of cell line cross-contamination". Cytotechnology 51 (2): 45–50. doi:10.1007/s10616-006-9013-8. ISSN 0920-9069. PMID 19002894.
- Chatterjee, R (Feb 2007). "Cell biology. Cases of mistaken identity.". Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5814): 928–31. doi:10.1126/science.315.5814.928. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17303729.
- Liscovitch, M; Ravid, D (Jan 2007). "A case study in misidentification of cancer cell lines: MCF-7/AdrR cells (re-designated NCI/ADR-RES) are derived from OVCAR-8 human ovarian carcinoma cells.". Cancer letters 245 (1-2): 350–2. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2006.01.013. ISSN 0304-3835. PMID 16504380.
- Macleod, RA; Dirks, WG; Matsuo, Y; Kaufmann, M; Milch, H; Drexler, HG (Nov 1999). "Widespread intraspecies cross-contamination of human tumor cell lines arising at source.". International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer 83 (4): 555–63. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19991112)83:4<555::AID-IJC19>3.0.CO;2-2. ISSN 0020-7136. PMID 10508494.
- Masters, JR (Apr 2002). "HeLa cells 50 years on: the good, the bad and the ugly.". Nature reviews. Cancer 2 (4): 315–9. doi:10.1038/nrc775. ISSN 1474-175X. PMID 12001993.
- Dunham, J.H. and Guthmiller, P. (2008) Doing good science: Authenticating cell line identity. Cell Notes 22, 15–17.
- | author = Gao W, Soloff AC, Lu X, Montecalvo A, Nguyen DC, Matsuoka Y, Robbins PD, Swayne DE, Donis RO, Katz JM, Barratt-Boyes SM, Gambotto A. | year = 2006 | month = February | title = Protection of mice and poultry from lethal H5N1 avian influenza virus through adenovirus-based immunization | journal = Journal of Virology | volume = 80 | issue = 4 | pages = 1959–1964 | publisher = American Society for Microbiology | location = United States | issn = 0022-538X | doi = 10.1128/JVI.80.4.1959-1964.2006 | url = http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/80/4/1959 | accessdate = 2010-01-31 }}
- "NIAID Taps Chiron to Develop Vaccine Against H9N2 Avian Influenza". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). 2004-08-17. http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2004/h9n2.htm. Retrieved on 2010-01-31.
- Hpacultures.org.uk, Health Protection Agency Culture Collections (ECACC)
- MacLeod, R. A. F. et al. (1999): Widespread intraspecies cross-contamination of human tumour cell lines. Wikipedia:International Journal of Cancer 83:555–563.
- Masters, John R. (2002): HeLa cells 50 years on: the good, the bad and the ugly. Wikipedia:Nature Reviews Cancer 2:315-319.
- Health Protection Agency Culture Collections - including ECACC (European Collection of Cell Cultures)
- Witkowski JA. Experimental pathology and the origins of tissue culture: Leo Loeb's contribution. Med Hist. 1983 July; 27(3): 269–288.
- Coriell Cell Repositories
- The National Centre for Cell Science (NCCS), Pune, India; national repository for cell lines/hybridomas etc.
- Neural Stem Cell Culture: Neurosphere generation, microscopical analysis and cryopreservation (a protocol)
- Rat Chromaffin cells primary cultures: Standardization and quality assessment for single-cell assays (a protocol)
- Table of common cell lines from Alberts 4th ed.
- Cancer Cells in Culture
- Hypertext version of the Cell Line Data Base
- Cell Culture Basics - Introduction to cell culture, covering topics such as laboratory set-up, safety and aseptic technique including basic cell culture protocols and video training
- Database of Who's Who in Cell Culture and Related Researchar:زرع الخلايا
ca:Cultiu cel·lular cs:Buněčná kultura de:Zellkultur es:Cultivo celular fa:کشت سلول fr:Culture cellulaire ko:세포 배양 id:Kultur sel it:Coltura cellulare he:תרבית תאים ja:細胞培養 pl:Kultura komórkowa pt:Cultura celular ru:Культура клеток simple:Cell culture fi:Soluviljely sv:Cellodling ta:உயிரணு வளர்ப்பு tr:Hücre kültürü zh:细胞培养